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dc.contributor.authorMutoti, Mulalo I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEdokpayi. Joshua N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMutileni, Ntwanano.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDurowoju, Olatunde S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMunyai, Fhatuwani L.en_US
dc.descriptionPublished versionen_US
dc.description.abstractGroundwater is a significant source of water across the world and constitutes about 30% of the earth’s freshwater. This water source is likely to be contaminated by cyanobacteria that produce secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins. Studies on contamination of groundwater by cyanobacteria have been sketchy with limited information. There is a need for better evidence regarding groundwater contamination by cyanobacteria as their presence in surface water bodies could cause contamination of groundwater via infiltration and percolation during rainfall events or during groundwater-surface water interaction, bank infiltration or water quality exchange. Therefore, this review is aimed at exploring the occurrences and potential sources of cyanotoxins in groundwater. This was achieved by summarising the existing data on the occurrence of cyanobacteria in groundwater and their potential sources across the world. Groundwater cyanobacteria contamination can possibly pose threat to water quality because many of the cyanotoxins produced by cyanobacteria pose a severe threat to human health, animals and the environment. Concentrations of microcystins (MCs) in groundwater have been recorded in China (Chaohu), Saudi Arabia, and China (Huai River Basin), with concentrations of 1.446 μg/L, 1.8 μg/L and 1.07 μg/L, respectively. In humans, exposure to these cyanotoxins can cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and skin irritation, to mention a few. This work highlights the importance of providing information or knowledge regarding public health implications of exposure to groundwater contaminated with cyanotoxins and the need to undertake risk management actions through national and international regulation. This review also points out current knowledge gaps, which could lead to future research.en_US
dc.subjectGroundwater-surface water interaction.en_US
dc.titleCyanotoxins in groundwater; occurrence, potential sources, health impacts and knowledge gap for public health.en_US
dc.typejournal articleen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Vendaen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Vendaen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Vendaen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Vendaen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Mpumalangaen_US
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