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Title: Pre-release evaluation of absolute spillover impact risk of Physonota maculiventris (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) on non-target plant species Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae) and Zea mays (Poaceae) in South Africa.
Authors: Mukwevho, Ludzula.
School of Biology and Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Non-target feeding risks.;Agent efficacy.;Tithonia and Mexicann sunflower.;Weed biocontrol.
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Abstract: The tortoise beetle, Physonota maculiventris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a candidate biological control agent of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (Asteraceae) was screened for spillover risks on non-target plant species in South Africa. Studies were conducted to measure the absolute feeding damage and reproductive performance of P. maculiventris on non-target plant species, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) and Zea mays L. (Poaceae). The influence of spillover on generational build-up performance on the non-target plant species was also investigated. Adult female beetles were switched from T. diversifolia at 14 (actively feeding colony) or 24 (gravid colony) days to the non-target species. Likewise, as a backup or control, female beetles were exposed to H. annuus in a no-choice situation and switched to T. diversifolia and Z. mays. Feeding damage, adult longevity and egg production of P. maculiventris were significantly lower on H. annuus, compared to those metrics on T. diversifolia. Gravid P. maculiventris adults switched from T. diversifolia on the 14th day after emergence laid a few egg batches on the leaf surfaces of Z. mays, but no signs of feeding were observed. Furthermore, the population of P. maculiventris significantly increased by 11.7 fold (26.8–312.5 adults) between the first (F1) and second (F2) generations on T. diversifolia, while on the non-target, H. annuus, it decreased from 6.3 to zero (0). The study concludes that P. maculiventris will sustain its populations entirely on the target, T. diversifolia population stands associated with or without H. annuus and Z. mays cultivations at different scales in South Africa.
Description: Please note that only UMP researchers are shown in the metadata. To access the co-authors, please view the full text.
DOI: 10.1080/09583157.2019.1608506
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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