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Title: Heat stress, varietal difference, and soil amendment influence on maize grain mineral concentrations †.
Authors: Chukwudi, Uchechukwu Paschal.
Mavengahama, Sydney.
Kutu, Funso Raphael.
Motsei, Lebogang Ezra.
North-West University
University of Nigeria
School of Agricultural Sciences
North-West University
Keywords: Grain yield.;Macro- and microminerals.;Malnutrition.;Organic and inorganic manure.;Thermotolerance.;Zea mays L.
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: Improving the mineral concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.) will aid in the reduction of malnutrition in low-resource households that consume maize-based meals regularly. The study’s objective was to compare how different soil amendments and heat-stressed environments affect grain yield and mineral concentrations in maize. The study involved heat-stressed (HS) and non-heat stressed (NHS) environments, three maize varieties (WE3128, WE5323, and ZM1523), and three soil amendments. The essential minerals analysis of the grain revealed a significant effect of variety, soil amendment, and heat stress on the grain yield and mineral contents. Among soil amendments, mineral fertilizer amendment (MF) gave the highest grain Zinc (Zn), 37.95 ± 15.3 µg/kg, while the highest grain iron (Fe) (136.9 ± 51.3 µg/kg) and yield were obtained with a combination of mineral fertilizer/poultry-manure amendment (MPM). The treatment interactions containing MPM in both the HS and NHS environments consistently produced positive results in the three maize varieties. When compared with the non-heat-stressed environment, the heat-stressed environment reduced grain weight (GWt) by 378% while increasing grain Fe and Zn concentrations by 43.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The HS was significantly higher than the NHS by 14.6%, 34.0%, 1.5%, 11.0%, 1.9%, and 89.2% for Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, P, and S, respectively. The highest macromineral concentrations were found in WE5323. All of the NHS treatments were grouped together, with the exception of NHS-4 and NHS-7, which produced the lowest means for the number of grain and GWt in the NHS, respectively. Although the variety was inconsistent in separating the treatment interactions, there was a good level of consistency in separating the treatment interactions along the heat stress factor and soil amendment factor. The correlation results revealed that a proportional relationship between Fe and Zn and grain yield tends to decrease the grain Fe or Zn concentrations. Therefore, selecting for high grain yield only may result in lower Fe and Zn concentrations in the grain. WE5323, amended with MPM, which produced the highest grain yield and stable mineral concentrations in non-heat-stressed and heat-stressed environments, should be considered in breeding programs aiming for high grain quantity and quality.
DOI: 10.3390/ agriculture12101633
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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