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Title: Bioavailability and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in popcorn kernel from sandy loam Ferric Luvisol amended with municipal solid waste compost.
Authors: Dada, Oyeyemi Adigun.
Kutu, Funso Raphael.
North-West University
School of Agricultural Sciences
Keywords: Popcorn kernels.;Toxic elements.;Compost utilization.;Health risk.;Metal(loid) pollutants.
Issue Date: 2021
Abstract: Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to marginal soil enhances crop growth but could also serve as source of pollutants into agroecosystem. There is scanty report on bioavailability of potentially toxic element (PTE) and the health risk of consuming popcorn kernel harvested from field fertilized with MSWC. Field trial was carried out in 2017–2019 to evaluate bioavailability of PTEs in kernel of popcorn harvested from field fertilized with MSWC. The trial was conducted at the experimental field of North-West University, Mafikeng campus South Africa. The treatments comprised three rates of MSWC including 0 t/ha (unamended, control), 4 t/ha and 8 t/ha arranged in randomized complete block design and replicated four times. One seed of popcorn was sown at 20 9 70 cm spacing per hole of 3 cm depth in a 6 9 4.2 m plot size. Growth and yield data were collected at maturity. Ears were harvested at maturity and the kernels were dried to 12% moisture content. Air-dried kernels (50 g) samples were collected and analyzed for essential mineral nutrient and some heavy metal(loid)s using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metal(loid)s were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. The results showed that uptake concentration was in the order K+[HPO4 2-[Mg?2[ Ca2?[ Fe2?- [ Cr6?[ Zn2?[ Mn2? [ Cu2?(mg/kg). Uptake concentration of metalloids: Al and Pd was significantly higher in the unamended. Bioavailability of PTE was highest in unamended plots. The average daily intake of the PTEs was within the recommended permissible level. The risk index value for oral pathway was \1 for both adult and children population. Amending Ferric Luvisol with 80 t/ha MSWC enhanced popcorn growth and, concentration of accumulated PTEs in kernels at this rate, cannot pose health risk to both adult and children population.
DOI: 10.1007/s10653-021-01020-y
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